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The role of alloying element in stainless steel composition

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The role of alloying element in stainless steel composition

May 21, 2019

Generally, pure metals have relatively high plasticity. When other alloying elements are added, the single-phase solid solution also has good plasticity. For example, fe-ni alloy can form continuous solid solution.

However, under the condition of containing other elements, intermetallic compounds insoluble in solid solution or partially soluble in solid solution are formed to reduce the plasticity of the metal, so the plasticity of the alloy is worse than that of pure metal or single-phase solid solution.

· Iron (Fe) : basic metal element of stainless steel;

· Chromium (Cr) : it is the main ferrite forming element, and the combination of chromium and oxygen can generate Cr2O3 passivation film with corrosion resistance. It is one of the basic elements for the corrosion resistance of stainless steel. The increase of chromium content can improve the repair ability of the passivation film of steel.

· Carbon (C) : it is a strong austenite forming element, which can significantly improve the strength of steel. In addition, carbon has an adverse effect on corrosion resistance;

· Nickel (Ni) : it is the main austenite forming element, which can slow down the corrosion of steel and the growth of grain when heated;

· Molybdenum (Mo) : it is a carbide forming element, which is extremely stable and can prevent the growth of grain during austenitic heating and reduce the sensitivity of steel to overheating. In addition, molybdenum can make the passivation film more compact and firm, thus effectively improving the cl-corrosion resistance of stainless steel;

· Niobium, Titanium (Nb, Ti) : it is a strong carbide forming element, which can improve the intercrystalline corrosion resistance of steel. However, titanium carbide has an adverse effect on the surface quality of stainless steel. Therefore, the performance of stainless steel with higher surface requirements is generally improved by adding niobium.

· Nitrogen (N) : it is a strong austenite forming element, which can significantly improve the strength of steel. However, the aging cracking of stainless steel is affected greatly, so the nitrogen content should be strictly controlled in the stainless steel used for stamping.

· Phosphorus, sulfur (P, S) : they are harmful elements in stainless steel and have adverse effects on the corrosion resistance and stamping properties of stainless steel.

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